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   Table of Contents - Current issue
September-December 2022
Volume 1 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 59-110

Online since Friday, October 14, 2022

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Time to Trust p. 59
Ramen Goel
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Staple-line reinforcement in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: Needful or excessive care? p. 61
Eduardo Lemos de Souza Bastos, Almino Cardoso Ramos
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has achieved high approval rates as stand-alone weight loss procedure in recent years. Its safety and effectiveness have been clearly established by numerous published studies. On the other hand, there has been great concern about complications related to the long staple line, mainly bleeding and leaks. Although this concern is universal among bariatric surgeons, strategies to prevent complications related to the staple line are not consensual. Accordingly, staple-line reinforcement methods have been widely proposed in an attempt to reduce the risk of these adverse events. However, nonreinforced but technically well-performed staple line can also be a very safe option, saving operative time and procedure-related costs. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to discuss current options for minimizing the risk of staple line-related bleeding and leaks in LSG, focusing on technical issues and reinforcement methods.
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Impact of metabolic and bariatric surgery on liver diseases: Current evidence p. 68
Lokesh Agarwal, Ritvik Chekuri, Vitish Singla, Arun Kumar, Shalimar , Sandeep Aggarwal
The obesity pandemic has led to metabolic-associated fatty liver disease as being a major cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation worldwide. Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS), through a significant and sustained weight loss, has been shown to have a positive impact on both liver steatohepatitis and fibrosis. This review article aims to present and critically appraise the current literature on the impact of MBS on liver disease and highlight its increasing acceptance within the liver transplant community.
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Impact of bariatric surgery on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Role of non-invasive tests p. 72
Kiran Kumar Yelkur, Mahidhar Valeti, Sumanth Kankanala, Sahithi Jekkyreddy, Mithila Gade
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in the majority of the patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Weight loss induced by bariatric surgery has been shown to improve clinical measurements and liver histology of NAFLD. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery on NAFLD in Indian patients with severe obesity using noninvasive parameters. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 67 patients who underwent bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). The Asia-Pacific Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Society guidelines were followed to ensure the indications for bariatric surgery. Data collected included anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and other noninvasive parameters. Results: Fifty-four patients were included in the final analysis, with the majority being males (54.2%). The mean age was 44.77 ± 12.64 years old. One-year follow-up postsurgery demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in total weight loss and body mass index (BMI) reduction (P < 0.00001). Mean NAFLD fibrosis scores improved from −1.70 to −1.95; however, the improvement was not statistically significant (P = 0.4295). Biochemical improvement was found in the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.0169) and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.0004). Concomitantly, significant improvements in AST to Platelet Ratio Index score, BMI, AST/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes score, and liver stiffness measurement on Fibroscan (8.9 ± 1.01 pka [initial] to 7.2 ± 0.40 pka [follow-up]) were observed. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a beneficial association of bariatric surgery in NAFLD patients. Bariatric surgery is found to induce weight loss significantly and improve liver functions as measured by noninvasive parameters. Further, long-term studies are needed to consolidate these results.
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Retrospective evaluation of mid- and long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery on obesity control in Indian population p. 77
Manish Khaitan, Riddhish Gadani, Koshish Nandan Pokharel
Context: Bariatric surgery is an effective method in inducing significant weight loss in patients suffering from obesity. Despite the strong evidence on its clinical effects, the data on its mid- and long-term follow-ups and durability are limited. This study is to evaluate the impact of bariatric surgical procedures on weight loss and resolution of comorbidities after surgery. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study including 1468 participants in whom laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, one-anastomosis gastric bypass, and balloon were performed between 2010 and 2019. Standardized weight loss measures were compared using an analysis of covariance. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of patients involved in this study is 43.41 ± 12.09 years with a preoperative weight and body mass index (BMI) of 117.23 ± 23.027 and 44.93 ± 8.02, respectively. The mean follow-up period is 2.9 years (0.83–9 years). Patients reported a mean percentage total weight loss (%TWL) of 8.1 ± 15.66%, percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) of 18.92 ± 40.56, and excess BMI loss of 18.38 ± 42.7 at the follow-up point of 9 years. The remission of diabetes was significantly improved by 17%. 0.89% of patients adhered to follow-up visits till the end of the study. Conclusions: Bariatric surgery demonstrated a beneficial association resulting in substantial weight loss and remission of diabetes. Further large, multi-site cohort studies on Indian population are needed to substantiate the evidence.
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Cognitive improvement following sleeve gastrectomy and roux-En-Y gastric bypass procedures p. 82
Nishant Gurnani, Mehul Gupta, Sandeep Aggarwal, Ashima Nehra, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas
Introduction: South Asia has noted an increasing prevalence of obesity and employment of bariatric surgery (BS) procedures. Prior studies have shown improvement in memory, executive function and attention, after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) operation in the Western population. However, there is a scarcity of data on cognitive improvement following BS in a non-Western population. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in cognitive functions of patients with severe obesity, after BS. Study Setting: Tertiary-care Academic Center, India. Methodology: A prospective study of patients undergoing BS was conducted. Specific neurocognitive tests (Mini-mental Status Examination, Standard progressive matrices, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Post Graduate Institute Memory Scale test) were used to assess cognitive status at baseline (preoperatively), and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: Fifty-three patients were enrolled in the study, out of which 50 had completed 1 year of follow-up at the time of analysis (n = 50). Thirty-six patients (72%) were females. The median age was 42 years, and the mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 45.5 ± 6.3 kg/m2. 40 patients underwent SG, while 10 underwent RYGB procedure. At baseline, the study cohort had impairment of abstract reasoning, attention, and verbal retention, as compared to normative data. At 1 year after surgery, the mean BMI was 29.1 ± 2.6 kg/m2. There was a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in most cognitive domains (global cognitive functioning, abstract reasoning, attention/concentration, and memory function). However, improvement in language function was not found to be significant across the follow-up duration of 12 months (P = 0.35). Conclusions: Individuals with severe obesity experience baseline impairment in cognitive functions. Similar to results from the Western population, BS (RYGB and SG) results in a significant improvement in multiple cognitive domains even in a non-Western population.
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microRNA profiling and the effect on metabolic biomarkers and weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A prospective cohort study p. 88
Mohamed Hany, Hala M Demerdash, Asmaa Abd Elhameed Ahmed, Ann Samy Shafik Agayby, Mohamed Ghaballa, Mohamed Ibrahim, Passent Maged, Bart Torensma
Background: Epigenetic changes after bariatric surgery are of increasing interest; we evaluated the levels of two circulating microRNAs (miRNA-222 and miRNA-146a) before and after the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and the effect of weight loss on the levels of metabolic biomarkers. Materials and Methods: We prospectively evaluated patients pre- and 12 months post-LSG for percent excess weight loss (%EWL), miRNAs levels, metabolic biomarkers (leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon peptide-1 [GLP-1]) levels from August 2019 to September 2021. Results: Significant differences were observed in the miRNA146a-3p (median: 0.64 (0.012-2.68) vs. 1.07 (0.1-3.6); P = 0.019) and miRNA222-5p (median 1.80 (0.1–3.61) vs. 1.19 (0.1-3.68); P = 0.003) levels before and after (12 months) LSG; fasting leptin, ghrelin, insulin, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and triglyceride levels also showed significant differences. Significant changes were observed in postprandial values of glucagon-like peptide l (GLP-1) (P = 0.0001) and peptide YY (P = 0.0006) 12 months after LSG. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (IR) was significantly correlated with %EWL, miRNA146a, and miRNA222-5p (P = 0.002). Postoperatively measured miR146a-39 and miRNA222-5p showed significant coefficient of determination R2 of 0.184 (P = 0.008) and 0.259, P = 0.0007 toward %EWL, respectively. Furthermore, significant correlations of miRNA146a were observed with FBS and IR. Conclusions: LSG-mediated weight loss affected the plasma levels of miR146a and miR222-5p. Due to the simultaneous decrease of ghrelin and increase of postprandial hormones (peptide YY and GLP-1), medical problems in patients with obesity were reduced. This study identified miRNAs as the new markers in the treatment, diagnosis, and therapeutic direction of patients with obesity.
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An evaluation of micronutrient status in severe obesity and follow-up assessment after bariatric surgery: A retrospective single-center study p. 97
Saba Amin Khan, Astha Sachan, Prasanna Ramana Arumugaswamy, Archna Singh, Sandeep Aggarwal, Rakhee Yadav
Background: Micronutrient deficiency is common in obesity despite surplus weight and high caloric intake. Further exacerbation is often seen after bariatric surgery due to the resultant dietary restrictions, and physiological and anatomical alterations. Owing to the rising prevalence of obesity in India with a simultaneous surge in bariatric surgeries, an account of micronutrient status is required. This will help in identifying susceptible individuals and setting up priorities for prevention and intervention. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study was designed to analyze the data collected before and until 1 year (3, 6, and 12 months) after bariatric surgery in individuals with severe obesity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m2, n = 150). We included the assessment of nutritional parameters, namely, serum iron, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine, calcium, phosphorus, Vitamin D, and parathormone along with anthropometric and routine biochemical investigations. Results: Deficiency of Vitamin D was most prevalent (52%) at baseline, followed by anemia (21%). Ferritin deficiency was 9.3%, followed by iron (8.0%), Vitamin B12(7.3%), and folate deficiency (4.7%) at baseline. There was a remarkable improvement in Vitamin D deficiency (26%), whereas the percent prevalence of other micronutrients has shown deterioration in 12 months after bariatric surgery. No significant difference existed in the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (n = 75) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (n = 75) over the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Micronutrient deficiencies persisted after bariatric surgery underlining the need for fine adjustment of supplementations and monitoring compliance to ensure the best patient outcomes.
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Hemodynamic changes during pneumoperitoneum and reverse Trendelenburg position in bariatric surgery: An observational study using noninvasive cardiac output monitoring p. 105
Deepak Poudel, Ravinder Kumar Pandey, Amar Pal Bhalla, Ankur Sharma, Bikash Ranjan Ray, Jyotsna Punj, Vanlalnghaka Darlong, Sandeep Aggarwal
Background: Patients undergoing bariatric surgeries are at higher perioperative risk due to multiple comorbidities. We studied the hemodynamic changes during pneumoperitoneum and reverse Trendelenburg position in bariatric surgery, using noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 60 patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I–II, aged between 18 and 60 years, planned for elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery were included. During the intraoperative period, hemodynamic monitoring was done using an estimated continuous CO (esCCO) monitor. We noted oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and CO values obtained before induction of general anesthesia and were compared with values obtained after induction, postintubation, after pneumoperitoneum, after reverse Trendelenburg, and every 10 min during the procedure and postextubation. Results: The mean baseline SpO2, pulse rate (PR), systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and CO was 99.17 ± 1.7, 99.9 ± 1.35 bpm, 136.3 ± 14.5 mm Hg, 83.11 ± 10.5 mm Hg, and 7.59 ± 1.44 L/min, respectively. There was a significant fall in PR, SBP, DBP, and CO after induction of anesthesia and intubation (P = 0.001). After creating pneumoperitoneum and reverse Trendelenburg, the fall in hemodynamic parameters was also significant (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The esCCO noninvasive CO monitor can be used in patients undergoing bariatric surgeries and predict CO during surgery.
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